BCRDWC. Welcome to the future of hydroponic cultivation

The BCRDWC hydroponic system defines and refines the future of hydroponic cultivation. The BCRDWC system and method is a functionally tailor-made system by design where the system’s functionality optimises all aspects of deep-water culture hydroponic cultivation of large, fast-growing annual plants, where the plant’s root zone can be monitored from a single point, creating a balanced natural environment, where bio inoculation of the roots and accurate root nutrient dosing can be controlled to a high degree of accuracy utilising analytical, statistical data, which the BCRDWC allows the collection of from one point for any number of plant root zones.

Traditionally plants grow in soil compost mixtures, where nutrient Mineral elements, water, oxygen, and other microbial flora exist to feed photosynthesis and plant growth. This process, the traditional way of plant cultivation, is the natural way of plant life. The plant searches for the nutrient elements by root developmental extension in search of water and nutrient bio elements embedded in the soil compost mix. By utilising this biological method, the water and nutrient elements are slowly leached by the root zone of plants as they search by root extension for an ever-increasing bio elemental source for life health and reproduction. To sustain a healthy plant, water must always be present for the plants to receive nutrients for optimal health and flower fruit formation

Plant Growth and Development – Basic Knowledge and Current Views>

The natural method of wild plant growth restricts the plant’s metabolic rate in the cultivation of plant products required for food and pharmaceutical cultivation. This restriction can be attributed to the plant’s search for nutrient elements embedded in soil or inert materials, thus meaning the plants cultivated must work harder at increasing root mass in search of water and nutrients at an ever-increasing rate. So, with this understanding, we could hypothesise that the generalised natural wild method of plant growth expends energy on root developmental extension. This means we could divert this vital plant energy resource a plant puts into its ever-increasing root mass and utilised in developing a more substantial upper green foliage giving a more vigorous fruit and flower production, which means where the energy needs to be to increase fruit mass and speed of crop fruit or flower formation with higher yields and quality of the required vital element content.

Plants have adapted to this natural method of growing over many aeons of evolution, as this is the natural order of plant biosynthesis. Plant life has become very successful in this method of bio growth; however, we can now improve biosynthesis by providing plants precisely what they require directly to the root zone in a controlled and balanced methodology. Thus, naturally improving the plant metabolic rate by using bio nutrient preparations that directly target the requirements of the plants throughout crucial stages of growth, without modification of the plant genome.

By controlling all aspects involved in the crucial root-zone nutrient and bio-stimulant uptake of plants, in a precise feeding regime. The plants receive an accurate measurement of the nutrients required for health and fruit/flower production without stress and energy wastage put upon their function and life Cycle. Therefore, enhancing the natural metabolic rate and giving rise to higher growth speed, quality & quantity of flower & fruit formation.

A Comparative LCA of Aeroponic, Hydroponic, and Soil Cultivations of Bioactive Substance Producing Plants>

We as a society are now at a pivotal point in plant life nutrient technology, where we can intervene in plant life’s natural growth and bioprocesses by utilising the new and exciting advanced nutrient technologies. By intervening in the metabolic function of the root zone of the plant and using the new nutrient technology, we can give the plants a near-perfect root zone environment to enhance crop production. We can feed the plants with all nutrient elements required in a scientifically balanced and controlled methodology throughout a plant’s life cycle, which differs significantly at vital stages of plant growth through a cultivation period. To utilise this new root nutrient technology, we must create new systems to deliver balanced and controlled nutrient solutions whilst precisely monitoring the nutrient element fluctuations through plant nutrient acquisition. As a result, we can increase fruit flower quality and maximise yield outputs. These systems must operate in high control and balanced functions with minimal maintenance by horticultural growers.

Why hydroponics? You might ask.

1. Poor soil fertility: Continuous cultivation of crops has resulted in poor soil fertility due to over-fertilisation and damage to the bio elements of soil in conventional cultivation.
2. Soil culture: Conventional crop cultivation utilising soil is becoming problematic as it involves a large amount of space, with high manual handling of materials and large volumes of water used, with most lost through evaporation, rather than used by the plant in transpiration.
3. In some places like metropolitan areas, the land and soil are not available for crop cultivation, and space is at a premium.
4. In soil, the presence of disease-causing pathogenic organisms such as Pythium aphanidermatum.
This form of a pathogen is difficult to control in soil cultivation without using chemical pesticides, which damage the soil’s natural bio flora, rendering them dead zones for the cultivation of plants.
5. Crop problems and failure due to the environmental impact of global warming with unpredictable & unstable weather conditions, which is set to increase over the coming years.

Advantages of the BCRDWC hydroponic system over conventional agriculture agri-tech systems.

• Less space is required to produce the same amount of crop as that grown in the field. This space-saving is especially relevant when cultivation takes place in a controlled environment, as a controlled environment is not affected by weather or seasonal cultivation conditions; in this way, far more annual crop cycles are achieved over conventional cultivation techniques.

• Less cultivation time is required when utilising hydroponic cultivation methods, especially with the BCRDWC hydroponic system. In addition, the growth of plants is healthily enhanced, as there are no mechanical impediments to the roots by materials such as soil to push through, and all nutrients and bio elements are available to the plant in balanced quantities.
Further, when combined with lighting systems such as specifically designed full spectrum Led lamps, which can be utilised in lengthening the day or supplementing natural daylight. Or even better, take over the full lighting in a fully controlled insulated factory unit, which is supplied electrical energy from natural resources such as wind, solar or Tidal, significant benefits are achieved over all other types of cultivation methods.

• Labour and maintenance are significantly reduced using the BCRDWC system as the intercultural operation is often absent or is far less. In addition, root zone irrigation is automated and maximised, meaning no hard manual lifting is required to cultivate, as the balanced controlled pumped flow system does the work.

• Water conservation is one of the most significant advantages of the BCRDWC hydroponics system, saving an incredible amount of water since the system uses as little as three per cent the amount compared to a regular farm to produce the same quantity of highly nutritious food. In addition, water logging of plant roots, which in turn creates pathogenic root attack, which never occurs in the BCRDWC system due to oxygenation of the metamorphic roots and the capture of micro air bubbles within the ultra-fine root structure composition.

• Saves crop capital investment by recirculating the balanced nutrients and bio elements embedded within an h2o carrier. Especially in the case of a closed loop hydroponics system such as the BCRDWC hydroponics system. This saving is due to the nutrients being cycled through the system by recirculation, thereby preventing loss of nutrient elements and soil pollution by over fertilisation and runoff into valuable water resources, such as streams and rivers. In addition, the minimal waste amounts of water can be recycled by filtration when not used by the plant at a nutrient replenishment point.

• Plants grown hydroponically in the BCRDWC system avoid soil-born pests and pathogens. This Immunity is primarily due to the roots being cultivated within a pathologically controlled environment and utilising the use of symbiotic mycorrhizal inoculant preparations. These inoculations alleviate the use of non-beneficial sterilisation chemicals added to the nutrient solution, eliminating all microbial life, good and bad alike.

• Total control over the plant rooting environment, as the root zone’s nutrient requirements can be modified to supply a specific element load; this is done by constantly monitoring the recirculating nutrient solution preparations from a single point. Also, the total control of nutrient Ph throughout a crop cycle and manipulation as required at key crop stages and throughout a twenty-four-hour day-night cycle.

• Greater quality and Higher yields, obtained with less cultivation time, this due to precise nutrient dosing control and the implementation of bio stimulating elements, such as Amino acids, dosed at accurate individual measured levels and at critical plant cultivation times, this triggering enhanced healthy growth and fruit/flower formation.

• Minimal and recyclable bio waste, with ninety-nine per cent compostable for reuse as organic fertilisers.

• Though there is a greater initial set-up cost than soil-based agriculture, which is offset very quickly with increased yield potentials, which are not dependent upon external environment giving year-round 24/7 cultivation. With the BCRDWC hydroponics system, the dichotomy widens, with the system being cheaper to instal, accurately run and maintain than other conventional hydroponic systems designed to cultivate the same crop species as the BCRDWC.

• Cultivators and staff require skill and knowledge to maintain optimum production, which the agri-tech workforce can learn, enabling a new high-tech agriculture training infrastructure for food and pharmaceutical cultivation which can become careers of the future.

These are just some of the benefits of BCRDWC hydroponic cultivation in the now and future as greater understanding develops through quantifiable research.

Now we will break down the unique, yet simple design and functional features offered by the BCRDWC hydroponic system and how these features benefit the plants cultivated within the system.

It has long been held Deep water culture hydroponics cultivates plants at a far enhanced and vigorous rate of growth, delivering far greater crop yields than any other type of hydroponic system developed to date.

However, the problems associated with traditional DWC hydroponic cultivation have always been the scalability and functionality when considered for use in a large-scale Agri-tech industrial complex. Scalable issues arise, such as the ability to control & check each root zone for correct nutrient elements and ph levels of the nutrient solution surrounding the roots within each of the root containers.  Also, the act of adjusting the nutrient solution when found to be out of a specific range is highly time-consuming and can lead to damage to the plant’s root system.

Another detrimental aspect that prevented large-scale use of DWC cultivation has been the challenging act of nutrient change due to the Individuality of each root zone container.

These are just some of the detriments that made DWC cultivation nonviable for industrial-scale application. That is until now, as the BCRDWC overcomes these issues.

After many years of quantifiable research and development into the root zone of deep-water culture cultivation and utilising the BCRDWC system’s unique features, we developed a measurable understanding of plant root bio requirements at all stages of the cultivation period. This understanding includes all relevant plant root research of recent years and plant nutrient science, which is expanding and developing at an exponential rate as we begin to understand the new science of root functions and elemental molecular interactions, also the biochemical interactions of plant life with beneficial symbionts, especially of a plants root zone.

Chemical Interactions at the Interface of Plant Root Hair Cells and Intracellular Bacteria;

National Library of Medicine – National Center for Biotechnology Information – Chemical Interactions at the Interface of Plant Root Hair Cells and Intracellular Bacteria>

A new method to optimise root order classification based on the diameter interval of fine root;

Nature.com – Science Reports – A new method to optimize root order classification based on the diameter interval of fine root>

How does the BCRDWC hydroponics system fit in, you might ask?

To answer the question of where the BCRDWC fits in. We at High-Tech Greens are proud to introduce the BCRDWC hydroponic system and quantifiable functional methodologies to you and the world. The BCRDWC system opens endless future possibilities in quantifiable root function science. Where the utilisation of root biosynthesis analysis, such as individual nutrient elemental uptake throughout a crop cycle, due to plant selective uptake as required by the plants varying metabolic rate throughout a twenty-four-hour period. This quantifiable root nutrient uptake information gives an accurate understanding of nutrient requirements at given points in time and through timed points of the day and night hours, this because required elements are leached from the nutrient solution as the plant’s roots expand and consume individual and specific nutrient bio elements. 

The developmental process of the BCRDWC system has been a functional project for over 8yrs. By designing, learning and understanding ways to overcome the limiting aspects of DWC cultivation for large- and small-scale operations and developing ways to minimise the input of vital root elements such as water, plant nutrients and bio elements whilst simultaneously maximising the output of crop yield and minimising waste. 

Firstly, we set out all requirements for a DWC cultivation system to operate as a large-scale cultivation method, as follows.

1. Recirculation:

Recirculation of nutrients & Bio elements is essential in a large-scale operation.

2. System balance:

System recirculation balance is an essential characteristic of a DWC system for cultivation on an industrial level of human food & pharmaceutical production.

3. Nutrient flow characteristics:

The system must have an individual root zone flow characteristic replicated and maintained throughout a multi-root zone system. This flow characteristic must benefit each root zone individually and throughout all root zones connected to the system with the least amount of physical intervention and manipulation of the individual root zone environments.

4. Individual feed and return points:

Each root zone must have a separate nutrient feed & return to alleviate & eliminate system-wide flow disruption by root mass development. Also, this allows for multi-zone balanced nutrient manipulation with greater speed and accuracy, thus preventing nutrient/ph crash or overload when adjustments are needed.

5. Single point nutrient adjustment and monitoring:

An industrial-scale hydroponics cultivation system must have a single point of monitoring & adjustment.

6. Accurate root zone sizing:

Root zone sizing is integral to correct root development and function. However, this sizing must be done on an individual plant crop phenotype basis creating the perfect environment for the species and size of plants cultivated in the system. In addition, root zone growth area profoundly affects productivity and efficiency, especially regarding water conservation & waste.

7. Minimal footprint for requirement:

A Hydroponic system must have a minimal working footprint that allows for the maximum working area around the system cultivation work zones, allowing for plant foliage manipulation techniques and harvesting.

8. Volumetric root nutrient pass through:

Nutrients must always encompass the root structure while allowing a constant uniform volumetric flow root pass through. This pass-through alleviates root nutrient pocket toxicity & provides for far greater root nutrient acquisition.

9. Zero added non-beneficial chemicals:

A system that can function without the addition of sterilising chemicals & filters built into the circulatory system, especially during the crop cultivation cycle.

10. Natural Mycorrhizal inoculation:

A deep water hydroponic system that maximises all developmental processes of the symbiotic relationship between plant roots and mycorrhizae inoculants.

11. Quantifiable flow:

The system must always be at a balanced volumetric nutrient flow rate, allowing for minimum adjustment lag in re-balancing the elemental content of the recirculating bio-energised nutrient solution preparations.

12. Straightforward cleaning & maintenance:

The system must be as simple as possible to effectively clean at the end of harvest in preparation for re-setting the new crop.

13. Root zone automation:

A hydroponics system for medium to large cultivation of food and pharmaceutical products must be able to adapt itself to full automation and is timeless in its adaption to the latest automation and monitoring developments as they arrive. 

14. Scientific advancement:

A deep water hydroponic cultivation system that allows root zone science to be expanded around the system’s quantifiable statistical data analysis will enhance human crop production output through greater knowledge and alleviate environmental damage through understanding.

15. System Simplification:

The system must be simple in construction and utilisation whilst robust enough to withstand years of continuous use, with minimal human repair and maintenance.

Once we had the parameters above to work with, we commenced equipment procurement to build our first base concept design and test system. When constructed, the first concept system was put into Version V01 Grow G01 operation, which we run over a twelve-week cultivation cycle of evaluation. 

The V01-G01evalution found functional design faults, such as:

  • Flow control was incorrect as balance through the system was insufficient and difficult to control. 
  • Possible inlet outlet incorrect positioning. 
  • Distribution lines incorrect size. 
  • Return lines incorrect. 
  • Untidy feed lines due to system balance issues. 

Plus, many more issues were found by running system design V1. 

As you can see, our deep-water culture understanding was basic at this time, as little research had been undertaken into DWC hydroponics. Though just by utilising a single root zone, DWC, it has been established that this cultivation method gives greater yield and potential future capabilities. 

This design and test method of the BCRDWC system took us twelve cultivation cycles until we had a fully functional Balanced Cascade Recirculating Deep Water Culture hydroponics system (BCRDWC) comparable to what we run today, which encompassed all requirements listed above. 

Through the BCRDWC system design stage, we were starting to understand the root structure development of the plants within the system’s root zones. This greater understanding through utilisation significantly affected the design principles, which we added to our design parameters for adjustment and testing.  

One of these unique understandings was what we have termed volumetric nutrient pass-through. This pass-through requirement gave us the concept of designing into the system the cascade effect of the BCRDWC system of today. We at HTG found that by cascading nutrients onto the top of the root ball sponge, which is suspended within the nutrient solution contained in the root zone containers and cascading from one side of the container at a level above the nutrient solution, then placing the single outlet return at the opposing bottom side of each root zone container connected to the system. This configuration allows for a continuous volumetric pass-through of nutrients & bio elements. 

Also, because we had to feed each cascading feed point with a balanced quantity of nutrients, we decided to implement an adjustable flow control valve at each root zone inlet. This way, we could supply the main feed lines with a set volumetric flow pressure balanced throughout the system, feeding each root zone with nutrients at a set continuous flow rate. 

The unique valved multi-flow control methodology gave us the BCRDWC expansion capabilities we have today. The unique hydroponic valve system provides the BCRDWC with the system potential of running a thousand root zones all from one controlled & monitored head sump unit, where individual nutrient elements are monitored & adjusted according to crop requirements. Due to this one-point direct analysis and nutrient dosing, being the head sump unit, we alleviate the need for mixing tanks. All nutrients are micro-dosed directly to the recirculating solutions upon analysed requirements. 

Though we had developed the system’s functional capabilities with great success over the twelve individual cycles, as previously mentioned, and at each cycle, we saw an increase in yield & quality. Yet, we did not fully understand how to operate the system to its maximum potential. Our lack of understanding at this time was due to no or very little research on this type of system approach. The only information we had on ph and nutrient values plus root structural development was from different hydroponic arts and cultivation methods of the past. However, we did have a base of information to form some hypotheses to investigate and move forward as we began understanding the BCRDWC’s functional capabilities and then developing our base operational parameters to work from whilst utilizing the BCRDWC for scientific cultivation evaluation. 

So began the study of the BCRDWC systems, how & why.  

The BCRDWC system’s functional development was rigorously tested by us at each new fundamental developmental improvement stage. In addition, the full-term testing was implemented to give quantifiable cause & effect analysis through each system cultivation cycle. 

Hypothesise, research and conclusion at each key stage of the functional development of the BCRDWC system, where quantifiable observational study played a significant factor in the design parameters and requirements of a hydroponics system to function on an advanced industrial scale.

BCRDWC system developmental research observations & quantifications.

1. Root zone volumetric pass through.

Root zone volumetric Pass through is the passing of pre-prepared nutrient solution through the roots of a plant, whereby the action of the cascading nutrient inlet, the nutrient solution contacts the contained and levelled nutrient solution within the root zone container, at which point the replenished cascading nutrients dissipate into the solution containing the root ball sponge. Then, through gravitational action and negative pressure in the return line, the solution gently makes its way to the root zone outlet at the bottom opposing side of the root zone container. H20 Logistics control is everything to the root metamorphic structure. 

2. Metamorphic root structure.

The metamorphic root structure is the enhanced environmental development of a fine root structural ball upon contact with the pre-prepared and pre-set deep-water nutrient solution, balanced and contained within the root zone containers, fed nutrients by volumetric pass-through. 

3. Key stage Nutrient element requirement.

Key stage nutrient element requirement is the monitoring from a single point, plant element acquisition through critical stages of the crop cultivation cycle, noting the differences of nutrient acquisition to form a Quantifiable basis for nutrient dosing.

4. Nutrient Solution renewal points.

Nutrient solution renewal points are vital through the cultivation of when to decant the system and renew the nutrient solution. Key points allow the user to avoid costly waste due to unnecessary nutrient changes.

5. Mycorrhizae inoculation and monitoring.

Mycorrhizae inoculation and monitoring is the vital inoculation of the root system with a bio inoculant containing symbiotic mycorrhizae, whether broad spectrum or precise dosing of the individual genus type required by the plant species cultivated. Also, the allowance of monitoring the symbiotic bond between the plant roots and mycorrhizae by root biopsy throughout a cultivation period without detrimental damage to the plant.

6. PH control and balance.

PH control and Balance are the monitoring and adjustment of the recirculating nutrient solution from a single point for each root zone attached to the system. Noting and adjusting fluctuations at crucial moments of change throughout the plant’s cultivation cycle due to root exudate release and root nutrient ion acquisition changes through the different phases of plant growth.

7. Key stage amino acid implementation.

Key amino acid implementation is using individual amino acids at key cultivation points at quantified measurable amounts to implement plant augmented responses.

8. Root zone temperature control.

Root zone temperature control is a valuable aspect in cultivation where accurate control of the temperature around the root ball sponge influences key plant responses in nutrient and oxygen acquisition.

BCRDWC H2o bio logistics is the logistical utilisation of water to carry all the nutrient and biological elements required to cultivate plants, in a fully monitored & controlled function to optimise and increase yield output of the highly beneficial fruit and flower elemental properties with a minimal optimised input & minimized waste output.